FS Industries ENGINEERED STEEL PRODUCTS
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PO Box 72659 Providence, RI 02907
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INTERNATIONAL
BUILDING CODE

ALL USE GROUP COMPLIANT
IBC PREFAB STEEL STAIRWAYS
ibc stairways
ibc stair tower
Two Level IBC Stair Tower
Quality engineered to your specific height
     requirements.
Designed for safety and convenience
Heavy duty diamond plate stair treads won’t
    sag or dish (supplied as standard).
Factory welded offset handrails of 1 1/2" x 11 Ga.
     square tubing.
Standard 12" handrail extensions at top and bottom
     of stairs.
42" high guards welded to stair stringers with 1/2"
     square rod vertical pickets on 4" centers.

10" structural channel stringers.
Fire proof construction.
Meets IBC requirements.
Standard finish gray enamel, others available upon
     request.
Standard 44" wide closed riser treads, 48" overall
     stair width. Other widths available upon request.
Tread depths are 12" deep diamond plate.
Shipped as 2 side frames and 1 bundle of treads
    for bolted assembly.


NEW! Optional Finishes!

Our standard finish is a quick dry enamel in a variety of colors.
Now we are pleased to offer our products with a hot-dipped galvanized finish or in a
duplex system which is paint over a hot-dipped galvanized undercoat.

galvanized ibc stairs galvanized ibc stair landing
Galvanized IBC Stair & Landing
Galvanized IBC Stair & Landing

ibs stair with closed riser ibs stair with offset handrail and guards
IBC Stair with Offset Handrail and Guards
*Important Note when ordering:  Specify actual floor to floor
height when ordering, stairways are custom designed to meet your
height requirements.  
  
IBC Stair with Closed Riser
Diamond Plate Treads
STANDARD DIAMOND PLATE TREAD
standard top tread
intermediate tread
Intermediate Tread Standard Color Gray
Standard Top Tread Shown with Special Color
12" Deep x 2", 11 Gauge

ibc stairs

round contour handrail
bottom handrail extension handrail
Round contour handrail provided
on multi level units
handrail
Bottom Handrail Extension

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PRICES
IBC Type
Model No.
Pricing Height
Range
Horizontal
Run
Tread
Width
Nominal Overall
Width
Painted Enamel
Finish Prices
Galvanized
Finish
Prices
I4436 3'-0" - 3'-5" 5'-10" - 6'-0" 44 48
I4836 48 52
I4441 3'-6" - 3'-11" 5'-10" - 6'-10" 44 48
I4841 48 52
I4448 4'-0" - 4'-5" 6'-10" - 7'-9" 44 48
I4848 48 52
I4454 4'-6" - 4'-11" 7'-9" - 8'-8" 44 48
I4854 48 52
I4460 5'-0" - 5'-5" 8'-8" - 9'-8" 44 48
I4860 48 52
I4466 5'-6" - 5'-11" 9'-7" - 10'-6" 44 48
I4866 48 52
I4472 6'-0" - 6'-5" 10'-6" - 10'-6" 44 48
I4872 48 52
I4478 6'-6" - 6'-11" 11'-5" - 11'-5" 44 48
I4878 48 52
I4484 7'-0" - 7'-5" 11'-5" - 12'-4" 44 48
I4884 48 52
I4490 7'-6" - 7'-11" 12'-4" - 13'-3" 44 48
I4890 48 52
I4496 8'-0" - 8'-5" 13'-3" - 14'-2" 44 48
I4896 48 52
I44102 8'-6" - 8'-11" 14'-2" - 15'-1" 44 48
I48102 48 52
I44108 9'-0" - 9'-5" 15'-1" - 16'-0" 44 48
I48108 48 52
I44114 9'-6" - 9'-11" 15'-11" - 16'-0" 44 48
I48114 48 52
I44120 10'-0" - 10'-5" 16'-10" - 16'11" 44 48
I48120 48 52
I44126 10'-6" - 10'-11" 16'-10" - 17'-10" 44 48
I48126 48 52
I44132 11'-0" - 11'-5" 17'-10" - 18'-9" 44 48
I48132 48 52
I44138 11'-6" - 12'-0" 18'-9" - 19'-8" 44 48
I48138 48 52
stairs steel stairways
IBC stair with vertical balusters provides
complete code compliance.
IBC stair used for general access to in plant mezzanine.
CLASSIFICATION
IBC DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
SECTION 302
CLASSIFICATION
SECTION 1011
STAIRWAYS
302.1 General. Structures or portions of structures shall
be classified with respect to occupancy in one or more
of the groups listed below. Structure with multiple uses
shall be classified according to Section 302.3. Where a
structure is proposed for a purpose which is not spec-
ifically provided for in this code, such structure shall be
classified in the group which the occupancy most nearly
resembles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard
involved.
1011.1 General. Stairways serving occupied portions
of a building shall comply with the requirements of
Sections 1011.2 through 1011.13. Alternating tread
devices
shall comply with Section 1011.14. Ships la-
dders shall comply with Section 1011.15. Ships ladders
shall comply with Section 1011.15. Ladders shall comply
with Section 1011.16.
Exception: Within rooms or spaces used for
assembly purposes, stepped aisles shall comply with
Section 1029.
1. Assembly (see section 303): Group A-1, A-2, A-3,
    A-4 and A-5.
1011.2 Width and capacity. The required capacity of
stairways shall be determined as specified in Section
1005.1, but the minimum width shall be not less than
44". See section 1009.3 for accessiblemeans
of egress
stairways.
2. Business (see Section 304): Group B.
3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E.
4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups
    F-1 and F-2.
5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Group H-1, H-2,
    H-3, H-4 and H-5.
Exceptions:
1. Stairways serving an occupant load of less
    than 50 shall have a width of not less than 36".
6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups I-1, I-2, I-3
    and I-4.
2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section
    1011.10.
7. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M.
8. Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-1, R-2,
    R-3 as applicable in Section 101.2, and R-4.
3. Where an incline platform lift or stairway chair-
     lift is installed on stairways serving occupancies
     in Group R-3, or within dwelling units in
     occupancies in Group R-2, a clear passage
     width not less than 20" shall be  provided. Where
     the seat and platform can be folded when not in
     use, the distance shall be measured from the
     folded position.
9. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2.
10. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312):
      Group U.
SECTION 306
FACTORY GROUP F
1011.3 Headroom. Stairways shall have a headroom
clearance of not less than 80" measured vertically from
a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such head-
room shall be continuous above the stairway to the
point where the line intersects the landing below,
one tread depth beyond the bottom riser. The mi-
nimum clearance shall be maintained the full width of
the stairway and landing.
306.1 Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial
Group F occupancy includes, among other, the use of a
building or structure, or a position thereof, for assem-
bling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing,
packaging, repair or processing operations that are not
classified as a Group H hazardous or Group S storage
occupancy.
306.2 Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-Hazard
Occupancy.
Factory industrial uses which are not clas-
sified as Factory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be
classified as F-1 Moderate Hazard and shall include, but
not be limited to, the following:
Exceptions:
1. Spiral stairways complying with Section 1011.10
    are permitted a 78" headroom clearance.
2. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units
    in Group R-2 occupancies: and in Group U occu-
    pancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occu-
    pancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in
    Group R-2 occupancies; where the nosings of
    treads at the side of a flight extend under the
Aircraft - Appliances - Athletic equipment - Automobiles
and other motor vehicles - Bakeries -
Beverages; over 16-percent alcohol content - Bicycles -
Boats - Brooms or brushes - Business machines
Cameras and photo equipment - Canvas or similar
fabric - Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) -
Clothing - Construction ad agricultural machinery
Disinfectants - Dry cleaning and dyeing - Electric
generation plants - Electronics - Engines (including
rebuilding) - Food processing Furniture - Hemp
products - Jute products - Laundries - Leather
products - Machinery - Metals - Millwork (sash &
door) - Motion pictures and television filming (without
spectators) - Musical instruments - Optical goods -
Paper mills or products - Photographic film
Plastic products - Printing or publishing}Recreational
vehicles - Refuse incineration - Shoes - Soaps and
detergents - Textiles - Tobacco - Trailers -
Upholstering - Wood: distillation - Woodworking
(cabinet)
    edge of a floor opening through which the stair
    passes, the floor opening shall be allowed to
    project horizontally into the required headroom
    not more than 4 3/4".
1011.4 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads
shall be concentric to the direction of travel through the
turn and located 12" from the side where the winders
are narrower. The 12" dimension shall be measured
from the widest point of the clear stair width at the
walking surface of the winder. Where winders are
adjacent within the flight, the point of the widest clear
stair width of the adjacentwinders shall be used.
1011.5 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers
shall comply with Sections 10.5.1 through 1011.5.5.3.
1011.5.1 Dimension reference surfaces. For the
purpose of this section, all dimensions are exclusive
of carpets, rugs or runners.
306.3 Low-hazard factory industrial, Group F-2.
Factory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or
manufacturing of noncombustible materials which during
finishing, packing or processing do not involve a sig-
nificant fire hazard shall be classified as F-2 occupancies
and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
1011.5.2 Riser height and tread depth. Stair riser
heights shall be 7" maximum and 4" minimum. The
riser height shall be measured vertically between the
nosings of adjacent treads. Rectangular tread depths
shall be 11" minimum measured horizontally between
the vertical planes of the foremost projection of ad-
jacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's
nosing. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread
depth of 11" between the vertical planes of the fore-
most projection of adjacent treads at the intersections
with the walkline and a minimum tread depth of 10"
within the clear width of the stair.
Beverages; up to and including 16-percent alcohol
content - Brick and masonry - Ceramic products -
Foundries - Glass products - Gypsum - Ice
Metal products (fabrication and assembly)
SECTION 307
HIGH-HAZARD GROUP H
[F] 307.1 High-Hazard Group H. High-Hazard Group
H occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building
or structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manu-
facturing, processing, generation or storage of materials
that constitute a physical or health hazard in quantities in
excess.
Exceptions:
1. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section
   1011.10.
2. Stairways connecting stepped aisles to cross
    aisles or concourses shall be permitted to use
    the riser/tread dimension in Section 1029.13.2.
[F] 307.4 High-Hazard Group H-2. Buildings and
structures which contain materials that present a deflag-
ration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning shall
be classified as Group H-2. Such materials shall include,
but not be limited to, the following:
3. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units
    in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U
    occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3
    occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling
    units
in Group R-2 occupancies; the maximum
    riser height shall be 7 3/4"; the minimum tread
    depth shall be 10"; the minimum winder tread
    depth at the walkline shall be 10"; and the mini-
    mum winder tread depth shall be 6". A nosing
   
projection not less than 3/4" but not more than
    1 1/4" shall be provided on stairways with solid
    risers where the tread depth is less than 11".
Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids
which are used or stored in normally open containers
or systems, or in closed containers or systems
pressurized at more than 15 psi gage (103.4 kPa) .
Combustible dusts - Cryogenic fluids, flammable -
Flammable gases - Organic peroxides, Class I -
Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in
normally open containers or systems, or in closed
containers or systems pressurized at more than
15 psi (103.3 kPa) gage Pyrophoric liquids, solids
and gases, nondetonable Unstable (reactive)
materials, Class 3, nondetonable - Water-reactive
materials, Class 3
4. See Section 403.1 of the International Existing
    Building Code
for the replacement of existing
    stairways.
5. In Group I-3 facilities, stairways providing access
    to guard towers, observation stations and control
    rooms, not more than 250 sq. ft. in area, shall be
    permitted to have a maximum riser height of 8"
    and a minimum tread depth of 9".
[F] 307.5 High-Hazard Group H-3. Buildings and struc-
tures that contain materials that readily support combustion
or present a physical hazard shall be classified as Group
H-3. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to,
the following:
1011.5.3 Winder treads. Winder treads are not
permitted in means of egress stairways except within
a dwelling unit.
Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids
which are used or stored in normally closed containers
or systems pressurized at less than 15 psi (103 kPa)
gage.
Exceptions:
1. Curved stairways in accordance with Section
    1011.9.
2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section
    1011.10.
Combustible Fibers, other than densely packed baled
cotton, where manufactured, generated or used in
such a manner that the concentration and conditions
create a fire or explosion hazard based on information
prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3.
1011.5.4 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and
risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance
between the largest and smallest riser height or bet-
ween the largest and smallest tread depth shall not ex-
ceed 3/8" in any flight of stairs. The greatest winder
tread depth at the walkline within any flight of stairs
shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8".
Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C Common)
Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing
Flammable solids
Organic peroxides, Classes II and III
Oxidizers, Class 2
Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in
normally closed containers or systems pressurized
at 15 psi gauge (103 kPa) or less
Oxidizing gases
Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2
Water-reactive materials, Class 2
Exceptions:
1. Stairways connecting stepped aisles to cross
    aisles or concourses shall be permitted to comply
    with the dimensional nonuniformity in Section
    1029.13.2.
2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with
    Section 101.5, differing from rectangular treads
    in the same flight of stairs.
[F] 307.6 High-Hazard Group H-4. Buildings and struc-
tures which contain materials that are health hazards shall
be classified as group H-4. Such materials shall include,
but not be limited to, the following:
3. Nonuniform riser dimension complying with
    Section 1011.5.4.1.
1011.5.4.1 Nonuniform height risers. Where the
bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public way,
walkway or driveway having an established grade
and serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is
permitted to be reduced along the slope to less than
4" in height, with the variation in height of the bottom
or top riser not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units
horizontal (8-percent slope) of stair width. The
nosings or leading edges of treads at such nonuniform
height risers shall have a distinctive marking stripe,
different from any other nosing marking provided on
the stair flight. The distinctive marking stripe shall be
visible in descent of the stair and shall have a slip-
resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a width
of not less than 1" but not more than 2".
Corrosives - Highly toxic materials - Toxic materials
[F] 307.7 Group H-5 Structures. Semiconductor fabri-
cation facilities and comparable research and development
areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are
used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess
of those listed in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) should
be classified as Group H-5.
SECTION 308
INSTITUTIONAL GROUP I
308.1 Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I
occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building
or structure, or a portion thereof, in which care or super-
vision is provided to persons who are or are not capable
of self-preservation without physical assistance or in
which persons are detained for penal or correctional
purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is
restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified
as Group I-1, I-2, I-3 or I-4.
1011.5.5 Nosing and riser profile. Nosings shall have
a curvature or bevel of not less than 1/16" but not more
than 9/16" from the foremost projection of the tread.
Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped under the
tread above from the underside of the nosing above at
an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the
vertical.
308.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
1011.5.1 Nosing projection size. The leading edge
(nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1 1/4"
beyond the tread below.
24-HOUR BASIS, CUSTODIAL CARE,
DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES,
HOSPITALS AND PSYCHIATRIC
HOSPITALS, INCAPABLE OF SELF-
PRESERVATION, MEDICAL CARE,
NURSING HOMES.
1011.5.5.2 Nosing projection uniformity. Nosing
projections of the leading edges shall be of uniform
size, including the projections of the nosing's leading
edge of the floor at the top of a flight.
1011.5.5.3 Solid risers. Risers shall be solid.
308.3 Institutional Group I-1. Institutional Group I-1 occupancy shall include buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who
reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised environment
and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group I-1 shall
be classified as one of the occupancy conditions specified
in Section 308.3.1 or 308.3.2. This group shall include,
but not be limited to, the following:
Exceptions:
1. Solid risers are not required for stairways that
    are not required to comply with Section 1009.3,
    provided that the opening between treads does
    not permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter
    of 4".
2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in
Alcohol and drug centers, Assisted living facilities,
Congregate care facilities, Group homes, Halfway
houses, Residential board and care facilities
Social rehabilitation facilities
    Group I-3 or in Group F, H and S occupancies
    other than areas accessible to the public. There
    are no restrictions on the size of the opening in
    the riser.
3. Solid risers are not required for spiral stairways
   
constructed in accordance with Sections 1011.10.
308.3.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall
include buildings in which all person receiving custodial
care who, without any assistance, are capable of respon-
ding to an emergency situation to complete building
evacuation.
1011.6 Stairway landings. There shall be a floor or
landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The
width of landings shall be not less than the width of
stairways served. Every landing shall have a minimum
width measured perpendicular to the direction of travel
equal to the width of the stairway. Where the stairway
has a straight run the depth need not exceed 48". Doors
opening onto a landing shall not reduce the landing to
less than one-half the required width. When fully open,
the door shall not project more than 7" into a landing.
Where wheelchair spaces are required on the stairway
landing in accordance with Section 1009.6.3, the wheel-
chair space
shall not be located in the required width of
the landing and doors shall not swing over the wheel-
chair spaces.

308.3.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall
include buildings in which there are any persons re-
ceiving custodial care who require limited verbal or
physical assistance while responding to an emergency
situation to complete building evacuation.

308.4 Institutional Group I-2. Institutional Group I-2
occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for
medical care on a 24-hour basis for more than five
person who are incapable of self-preservation. This
group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
Foster care facilities, detoxification facilities,
hospitals, nursing homes, psychiatric hospitals
Exception: Where stairways connect stepped aisles
to cross aisles or concourses, stairway landings are
not required at the transition between stairways and
stepped aisles constructed in accordance with Section
1029.
308.4.1 Occupancy conditions. Buildings of Group
I-2 shall be classified as one of the occupancy con-
ditions specified in Section 308.4.1.1 or 308.4.1.2.
308.4.1.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall
include facilities that provide nursing and medical care
but do not provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics
or in-patient stabilization units for psychiatric or
detoxification, including but not limited to nursing
homes and foster care facilities.
1011.7 Stairway construction. Stairways shall be built
of materials consistent with the types permitted for the
type of construction of the building, except that wood
handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction.
1011.7.1 Stairway walking surface. The walking
surface of treads and landings of a stairway shall not
be sloped steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units
horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Stair-
way
treads and landings shall have a solid surface.
Finish floor surfaces shall be securely attached.
308.4.1.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall
include facilities that provide nursing and medical care
and could provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics
or in-patient stabilization units for psychiatric or
detoxification, including but not limited to hospitals.
308.4.2 Five or fewer persons receiving medical
care.
A facility with five or fewer persons receiving
medical care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall
comply with the International Residential Code
provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in
accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or Section P2904
of the International Residential Code.
Exceptions:
1. Openings in stair walking surfaces shall be a size
    that does not permit the passage of 1/2" diameter
    sphere. Elongated openings shall be placed so that
    the long dimension is perpendicular to the direc-
    tion of travel.
2. In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than
    areas of parking structures accessible to the
    public, openings in treads and landings shall not
    be prohibited provided a sphere with a diameter
    of 1 1/8" cannot pass through the opening.
308.5 Institutional Group I-3. Institutional Group I-3
occupancy shall include buildings and structures that are
inhabited by more than five persons who are under
restraint or security. A Group I-3 facility is occupied by
persons who are generally incapable of self-preservation
due to security measures not under the occupants'
control. This group shall include, but not be limited to,
the following:
1011.7.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor stairways
and outdoor approaches to stairways shall be de-
signed so that water will not accumulate on walking
surfaces.
Correctional centers, Detention centers, Jails,
Prerelease centers, Prisons, Reformatories
1011.7.3 Enclosures under interior stairways.
The walls and soffits within enclosed usable spaces
under enclosed and unenclosed stairways shall be
protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction
or the fire-resistance-rated construction or the fire-
resistance rating of the stairway enclosure, whichever
is greater. Access to the enclosed space shall not be
directly from within the stairway enclosure.
Buildings of Group I-3 shall be classified as one of the
occupancy conditions specified in Sections 308.5.1
through 308.5.5 (see Section 408.1).
308.5.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall
include buildings in which free movement is allowed
from sleeping areas, and other spaces where access
or occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of
egress without restraint. A condition 1 facility is per-
mitted to be constructed as Group R.
Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and
contained within a single residential dwelling unit
in Group R-2 or R-3 shall be permitted to be pro-
308.5.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall
include buildings in which free movement is allowed
from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke
compartment
to one or more other smoke compart-
ments
. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.
tected on the enclosed side with 1/2" gypsum
board.
1011.7.4 Enclosures under exterior stairways.
There shall not be enclosed usable space under ex-
terior exit stairways
unless the space is completely
enclosed in 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.
The open space under exterior stairways shall not be
used for any purpose.
308.5.3 Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall
include buildings in which free movement is allowed
within individual smoke compartments, such as within
a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units
and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by
remote-controlled release of means of egress from such
a smoke compartment to another smoke com-
partment
.
1011.8 Vertical rise. A flight of stairs shall not have a
vertical rise greater than 12' between floor levels or
landings.
Exception: Spiral stairways used as a means of egress
from technical production areas.
308.5.4 Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall
include buildings in which free movement is restricted
from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is
provided to permit movement from sleeping units,
activity spaces and other occupied areas within the
smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.
1011.9 Curved stairways. Curved stairways with
winder treads shall have treads and risers in accordance
with Section 1011.5 and the smallest radius shall be not
less than twice the minimum width or required capacity
of the stairway.
Exception: The radius restriction shall not apply to
curved stairways in Group R-3 and within individual
dwelling units in Group R-2
308.5.5 Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall
include buildings in which free movement is restricted
from an occupied space. Staff-controlled release is
provided to permit movement from sleeping units,
activity spaces and other occupied areas within the
smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.
1011.10 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are per-
mitted to be used as a component in the means of
egress
only within dwelling units or from a space not
more than 250 sq. feet in area and serving not more
than five occupants, or from technical production
areas
in accordance with Section 410.6.
SECTION 311
STORAGE GROUP S
A spiral stairway shall have a 7 1/2" minimum clear
tread depth at a point 12" from the narrow edge. The
risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78"
minimum, but riser height shall not be more than 9 1/2".
The minimum stairway clear width at and below the
handrail shall be 26".
311.1 Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure,
or a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a
hazardous occupancy.
311.1.1 Accessory storage spaces. A room or space
used for storage purposes that is less than 100 square
feet (9.3 m²) in area and accessory to another occupancy
shall be classified as part of that occupancy. The ag-
gregate area of such rooms or spaces shall not exceed
the allowable area limits of Section 508.2.
1011.11 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails
on each side and shall comply with Section 1014. Where
glass is used to provide the handrail, the handrail shall
comply with Section 2407.
Exceptions:
311.2 Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Buildings
occupied for storage uses which are not classified as Group
S-2 including, but not limited to, storage of the following:
1. Stairways within dwelling units and spiral
    stairways
are permitted to have a handrail on
    one side only.
Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 - Aircraft repair hangar -
Bags; cloth, burlap and paper - Bamboo's and rattan -
Baskets - Belting; canvas and leather -
Books and paper in rolls or packs - Boots and shoes -
Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone -
Cardboard and cardboard boxes -
Clothing, woolen wearing apparel - Cordage -
Furniture - Furs - Glues, mucilage, pastes and size -
Grains - Horns and combs, other than celluloid -
Leather - Linoleum - Lumber -
Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the
maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials. -
Photo engravings - Resilient flooring - Silks - Soaps -
Sugar - Tires, bulk storage of Tabasco, cigars,
cigarettes and stuff - Upholstery and mattresses -
Wax candles
2. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single
    change in elevation where the landing depth on
    each side of the change of elevation is greater
    than what is required for a landing do not require
    handrails.
3. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation
    consisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress
    door does not require handrails.
4. Changes in room elevations of three or fewer
    risers within dwelling units and sleeping units in
    Group R-2 and R-3 do not require handrails.
1011.12 Stairway to roof. In buildings four or more
stories above grade plane, one stairway shall extend
to the roof surface unless the roof has a slope steeper
than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent
slope).
311.3 Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Storage Group
S-2 occupancies include, among others, buildings used
for the storage of noncombustible materials such as pro-
ducts on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or with-
out single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings.
Such products are permitted to have a negligible amount
of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping,
Group S-2 storage uses shall include, but not be limited
to, storage of the following:
Exception: Other than where required by Section
1011.12.1, in buildings without an occupied roof
access to the roof from the top story shall be permitted
to be by an alternating tread device, a ships ladder or
a permanent ladder.
1011.12.1 Stairway to elevator equipment. Roofs
and penthouses containing elevator equipment that must
be accessed for maintenance are required to be ac-
cessed by a stairway.
Asbestos - Beverages up to and
including 12-percent alcohol in metal, glass or
ceramic containers - Cement in bags - Chalk and
crayons - Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper
containers - Dry cell batteries - Electrical coils -
Electrical motors - Empty cans - Food products -
Foods in noncombustible containers - Fresh fruits
and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers -
Frozen foods - Glass - Glass bottles, empty or
filled with noncombustible liquids - Gypsum board -
Inert pigments - Ivory - Meats - Metal cabinets -
Metal desks with plastic tops and trim - Metal
parts - Metals - Mirrors - Oil-filled and other types
of distribution transformers Parking garages, open
or enclosed - Porcelain and pottery - Stoves - Talc
and soapstones - Washers and dryers
1011.12.2 Roof access. Where a stairway is provided
to a roof, access to the roof shall be provided through a
penthouse complying with Section 1510.2.
Exception: In buildings without an occupied roof,
access to the roof shall be permitted to be a roof hatch
or trap door not less than 16 sq. ft. in area and having
a minimum dimension of 2'.
1011.13 Guards. Guards shall be provided along stair-
ways and landings where required by Section 1015 and
shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1015.
Where the roof hatch opening providing the required
access is located within 10' of the roof edge, such roof
access or roof edge shall be protected by guards in-
stalled in accordance with Section 1015.
1011.14 Alternating tread devices. Alternating tread
devices are limited to an element of a means of egress in
buildings of Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not
more than 250 sq. ft. in area and that serves not more
than five occupants; in buildings of Group I-3 from a
guard tower, observation station or control room not
more than 250 sq. ft. in area and for access to unoc-
cupied roofs. Alternating tread devices used as a
means of egress shall not have a rise greater than 20'
between floor levels or landings.
SECTION 1015
GUARDS
1015.1 General. Guards shall comply with the provi-
sions of Sections 1015.2 through 1015.6. Operable
windows with sills located more than 72" above finished
grade or other surface below shall comply with Section
1015.7.
1015.2 Where Required. Guards shall be located
along open-sided walking surfaces, including mezzanines,
equipment platforms, aisles, stairs, ramps and landings
than are located more than 30" measured vertically to
the floor or grade below at any point within 36" hori-
zontally to the edge of the open side. Guards shall be
adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with
Section 1607.8.
1011.14.1 Handrails of alternating tread devices.
Handrails shall be provided on both sides of alternating
tread devices and shall comply with Section 1021.
1011.14.2 Treads of alternating tread devices. Alternating tread devices shall have a minimum tread
depth of 5", a minimum projected tread depth of 8 1/2",
a minimum tread width of 7" and a maximum riser
height of 9 1/2". The tread depth shall be measured
horizontally between treads. The riser height shall be
measured vertically between the leading edges of ad-
jacent treads. The riser height and tread depth pro-
vided shall result in an angle of ascent from the hori-
zontal of between 50 and 70 degrees. The initial tread
of the devise shall begin at the same elevation as the
platform, landing or floor surface.
Exception: Guards are not required for the following
                   locations:
1. On the loading side of loading docks or piers.
2. On the audience side of stages and raised plat-
    forms, including steps leading up to the stage and
    raised platforms
3. On raised stage and platform floor areas such as
    runways, ramps and side stages used for enter-
    tainment or presentations.
4. At vertical openings in the performance area of
    stages and platforms.
5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to
    stages and platforms for access to and utilization
    of special lighting or equipment.
6. Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the
    public.
7. In assembly seating areas at cross aisles in ac-
    cordance with Section 1029.16.2.
Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an
element of a means of egress in buildings from a
mezzanine area not more than 250 sq. ft. in area that
serves not more than five occupants shall have a mi-
nimum tread depth of 3" with a minimum projected
tread depth of 10 1/2".
1011.15 Ships ladders. Ships ladders are permitted
to be used in Group I-3 as a component of a means of
egress to and from control rooms or elevated facility
observation stations not more than 250 sq. ft. with not
more than three occupants and for access to unoccupied
roofs. The minimum clear width at and below the hand-
rails shall be 20".
1015.2.1 Glazing. Where glass is used to provide a
guard or as a portion of the guard system, the guard shall
comply with Section 2407. Where the glazing provided
does not meet the strength and attachment requirements
of Section 1607.8, complying guards shall be located
along glazed sides of open-sided walking surfaces.
1011.15.1 Handrails of ships ladders. Handrails
shall be provided on both sides of ships ladders.
1011.15.2 Treads of ships ladders. Ships ladders
shall have a minimum tread depth of 5". The tread
shall be projected such that the total of the tread
depth plus the nosing projection is not less than
8 1/2". The maximum riser height shall be 91/2".
1015.3 Height. Required guards shall be not less than
42" high, measured vertically as follows:
1. From the adjacent walking surfaces.
2. On stairways and stepped aisles, from the line con-
    necting the leading edges of the tread nosings.
1011.16 Ladders. Permanent ladders shall not serve
as a part of the means of egress from occupied spaces
within a building. Permanent ladders shall be permitted
to provide access to the following areas:
3. On ramps and ramped aisles, from the ramp surface
    at the guard.
Exceptions:
1. Spaces frequented only by personnel for main-
    tenance, repair or monitoring of equipment.
1. For occupancies in Group R-3 not more than three
    stories above grade in height and within individual
    dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2 not more
    than three stories above grade in height with separate
    means of egress, required guards shall be not less
    than 26" in height measured vertically above the ad-
    jacent walking surfaces or adjacent fixed seating.
2. Nonoccupiable spaces accessed only by catwalks,
    crawl spaces, freight elevators or very narrow
    passageways.
3. Raised areas used primarily for purposes of security,
    life safety or fire safety including, but not limited to,
    observation galleries, prison guard towers, fire
    towers or lifeguard stands.
2. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual
    dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, guards
    on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less
    than 34" measured vertically from a line connecting
    the leading edges of the treads.
4. Elevated levels in Group U not open to the general
    public.
5. Nonoccupied roofs that are not required to have
    stairway access in accordance with Section 1011.12.1.
3. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual
    dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, where
    the top of the guard also serves as a handrail on the
    open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall be not
    less than 34" and not more than 38" measured ver-
    tically from a line connecting the leading edges of the
    treads.
6. Ladders shall be constructed in accordance with
    Section 306.5 of the International Mechanical
    Code
.
SECTION 1014
HANDRAILS
4. The guard height in assembly seating areas shall
    comply with Section 1029.16 as applicable.
1014.1 Where required. Handrails serving stairways,
ramps, stepped aisles and ramped aisles shall be ad-
equate in strength and attachment in accordance with
Section 1607.8. Handrails required for stairways by
Section 1011.11 shall comply with Sections 1014.2
through 1014.9.
5. Along alternating tread devices and ships ladders,
    guards where the top rail also serves as a handrail
    shall have height not less than 30" and not more than
    34", measured vertically from the leading edge of the
    device tread nosing.
1014.2 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair
tread nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be
uniform, not less than 34" and not more than 38". Hand-
rail height of alternating tread devices and ships ladders,
measured above tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less
than 30" and not more than 34".
1015.4 Opening Limitations. Required guards shall
not have openings that allow passage of a sphere 4" in
dia. from the walking surface to the required guard height.
Exceptions:

1. From a height of 36" to 42", guards shall not have
    openings that allow passage of a sphere 4 3/8" in dia.

Exceptions:
2. The triangular openings at the open side of a stair,
    formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail shall not
    allow passage of a sphere 6" in dia.
3. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use
    of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or
    equipment, guards shall not have openings that
    allow passage of a sphere 21" in dia.
4. In areas that are not open to the public within
    occupancies in Group I-3, F, H or S, and for
    alternating tread devices and ships ladders, guards
    shall not have openings that allow passage of a sphere
    21" in dia.
1. Where handrail fittings or bendings are used to
    provide continuous transition between flights, the
    fittings or endings shall be permitted to exceed the
    maximum height.
2. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in
    Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occu-
    pancies that are associated with a Group R-3 occu-
    pancy or associated with individual dwelling units
    in Group R-2 occupancies; where handrail fittings or
    bendings are used to provide continuous transition
    between flights, transition at winder treads, tran-
    sition from handrail to guard, or where used at the
    start of a flight, the handrail height at the fittings or
    bendings shall be permitted to exceed the maximum
    height.
5. In assembly seating areas, guards required at the end
    of aisles in accordance with Section 1029.16.4 shall
    not have openings that allow passage of a sphere 4" in
    dia. up to a height of 26". From a height of 26" to 42"
    above the adjacent walking surfaces, guards shall not
    have openings that allow passage of a sphere 8" in dia.
3. Handrails on top of a guard where permitted along
    stepped aisles and ramped aisles in accordance with
    Section 1029.15.
6. Within individual dwelling units and sleeping units in
    Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, guards on the open
    sides of stairs shall not have openings that allow pass-
    age of a sphere 4 3/8" in dia.
1014.3 Handrail graspability. Required handrails shall
comply with Section 1014.3.1 or shall provide equivalent
graspability.
Exception: In Group R-3 occupancies; within
dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in
Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group
R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling
units
in Group R-2 occupancies; handrails shall be
Type I in accordance with Section 1014.3.1, Type II
in accordance with Section 1014.3.2 or shall provide
1015.5 Screen Porches. Porches and decks which are
enclosed with insect screening shall be provided with
guards where the walking surface is located more than
30" above the floor or grade below.
1015.6 Mechanical equipment, systems and
devices.
Guards shall be provided where various
components that require service are located within 10'
of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and
such edge or open side is located more than 30" above
the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall extend
not less than 30" beyond each end of such components.
The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the
passage of a sphere 21" in dia.
equivalent graspability.
1014.3.1 Type I. Handrails with a circular cross
section shall have an outside diameter of not less than
1 1/4" and not greater than 2". Where the handrail is not
circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of not less
than 4" and not greater than 6 1/4" with a maximum
cross-sectional dimensions of 2 1/4" and minimum
cross-sectional dimensions of 1". Edges shall have
a minimum radius of 0.01".
Exception: Guards are not required where permanent
fall arrest/restraint anchorage connector devices that
comply with ANSI/ASSE Z 359.1 are affixed for use
during the entire roof covering lifetime. The devices
shall be reevaluated for possible replacement when the
entire roof covering is replaced. The devices shall be
placed not more than 10' on center along hip and ridge
lines and placed not less than 10' from the roof edge or
open side of the walking surface.
1014.3.2 Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater
than 6 1/4" shall provide a graspable finger recess area
on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall
begin within a distance of 3/4" measured vertically from
the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth
of not less than 5/16" within 7/8" below the widest por-
tion of the profile. This required depth shall continue
for not less than 3/8" to a level that is not less than
1 2/4" below the tallest portion of the profile. The
width of the hand- rail above the recess shall be not
less than 1 1/4" to not greater than 2 3/4". Edges shall
have a minimum radius of 0.01".
1015.7 Roof access. Guards shall be provided where
the roof hatch opening is located within 10' of a roof edge
or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open
side is located more than 30" above the floor, roof or grade
below. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent
the passage of a sphere 21" in dia.
1014.4 Continuity. Handrail-gripping surfaces shall
be continuous, without interruption by newel posts or
other obstruction.
Exceptions: Guards are not required where per-
manent fall arrest/restraint anchorage connector devices
that comply with ANSI/ASSE Z 359.1 are affixed for
use during the entire roof covering lifetime. The devices
shall be reevaluated for possible replacement when the
entire roof covering is replaces. The devices shall be
placed not more than 10' on center along hip and ridge
lines and placed not less than 10' from the roof edge or
open side of the walking surface.
Exceptions:
1. Handrails within dwelling unit are permitted to be
     interrupted by a newel post at a stair landing.
2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout
    or starting easing is allowed on the lowest tread.
3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the
    bottom surface of the handrail that do not project
    horizontally beyond the sides of the handrail within
    1 1/2" of the bottom of the handrail shall not be
    considered to be obstructions and provided further
    that for each 1/2" of additional handrail perimeter
    dimension above 4", the vertical clearance dimen-
    sion of 1 1/2" shall be permitted to be reduced by
    1/8".
1015.8 Window openings. Windows in Group R-2
and R-3 buildings including dwelling units, where the top
of the sill of an operable window opening is located less
than 36" above the finished floor and more than 72"
above the finished grad or other surface below on the
exterior of the building, shall comply with one of the
following:
4. Where handrails are provided along walking
    surfaces with slopes not steeper than 1:20, the
    bottoms of the handrail gripping surfaces shall
    be permitted to be obstructed along their entire
    length where they are integral to crash rails or
    bumper guards.
1. Operable windows where the top of the sill of the
    opening is located more than 75' above the finished
    grade or other surface below and that are provided
    with window fall prevention devices that comply with
    ASTM F 2006.
2. Operable windows where the openings will not
    allow a 4-inch diameter sphere to pass through
    the opening when the window is in its largest
    opened position.
5. Handrails serving stepped aisles or ramped aisles
    are permitted to be discontinuous in accordance
    with Section 1029.15.1.
3. Operable windows where the openings are pro-
    vided with window fall prevention devices that
    comply with ASTM F 2090
1014.5 Fittings. Handrails shall not rotate within their
fittings.
1014.6 Handrail Extensions. Handrails shall return
to a wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be
continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight.
Where handrails are not continuous between flights, the
handrails shall extend horizontally at least 12" beyond
the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one
tread beyond the bottom riser. At ramps where handrails
are not continuous between runs, the handrails shall
extend horizontally above the landing 12" minimum
beyond the top and bottom of ramp runs. The extensions
of handrails shall be in the same direction of the flights of
stairs at stairways and the ramp runs at ramps.
4. Operable windows that are provided with window
    opening control devices that comply with Section
    1015.8.1.
1015.8.1 Window opening control devices. Window
opening control devices shall comply with ASTM
F 2090. The window opening control device, after
operation to release the control device allowing the
window to fully open, shall not reduce the minimum net
clear opening are of the window unit to less than the
area required by Section 1030.2.
Exceptions:
1. Handrails within a dwelling unit that is not
    required to be accessible need extend only from
    the top riser to the bottom riser.
2. Handrails serving aisles in rooms or spaces used for
    assembly purposes are permitted to comply with the
    handrail extensions in accordance with Section
    1029.15.
3. Handrails for alternating tread devices and ships
    ladders are permitted to terminate at a location ver-
    tically above the top and bottom risers. Handrails
    for alternating tread devices are not required to be
    continuous between flights or to extend beyond the
    top or bottom risers.
1014.7 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail
and a wall or other surface shall be not less than 1/2".
A handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the
handrail shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements.
1014.8 Projections. On ramps and on ramped aisles
that are part of an accessible route, the clear width be-
tween handrails shall be 36" minimum. Projections into
the required width of aisles, stairways and ramps at each
side shall not exceed 4 1/2" at or below the handrail
height. Projections into the required width shall not be
limited above the minimum headroom height required in
Section 1011.3. Projections due to intermediate hand-
rails shall not constitute a reduction in the egress width.
Where a pair of intermediate handrails are provided with-
in the stairway width without a walking surface between
the pair of intermediate handrails and the distance be-
tween the pair of intermediate handrails is greater than
6", the available egress width shall be reduced by the
distance between the closest edges of each such inter-
mediate pair of handrails that is greater than 6".
1014.9 Intermediate handrails. Stairways shall have
intermediate handrails located in such a manner that all
portions of the stairway minimum width or required ca-
pacity are within 30" of a handrail. On monumental stairs,
handrails shall be located along the most direct path of
egress travel.

International Building Code, IBC Prefab Steel Stairways, Engineered to your Specific Height Requirements, Diamond Plate
Stair Treads, Welded Offset Handrails, 42 inch High Guards, and Galvanized Finish from your complete source for material
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